Habituality in crime
Preventive policing in colonial India 1871-1924
Daniela Berti (CNRS – Centre d’Études Himalayennes)
Fabien Provost (Université Paris Ouest)
Vendredi 13 mai 2016 de 17h à 18h30
Amphithéâtre Claude Lévi-Strauss Collège de France – Site Cardinal Lemoine 52 rue du Cardinal Lemoine Paris 5e
La conférence aura lieu en anglais.
Pour prolonger cette conférence, un repas convivial aura lieu (à la charge des participants) au Restaurant Kathmandu 22 Rue des Boulangers, 75005 Paris
Inscription obligatoire pour le dîner (avant le 7 mai 2016)
This talk examines the laws, paperwork and protocols of colonial preventive’ policing. In the reconstruction of rule after the 1857 rebellion in India, a dual but intersecting pathway emerged for dealing with those suspected of habituality in crime: the bad livelihood provisions of the Criminal Procedure code and the Criminal Tribes Act of 1871. The first involved a judicial proceeding, not a trial for a specific offence. On the basis of evidence of ‘general repute or otherwise a magistrate could demand ‘security for good behaviour’. Failure to provide this security, could result in jail terms ranging from a year to three years and long term liability thereafter to police surveillance. Under the Criminal Tribes Act there was no reference to the courts at all. To bring a particular community or a section of it under the operation of the Criminal Tribes Act a provincial government had to declare that its members persisted in non-bailable crimes .This resulted in a regime of roll-calls, surveillance and forced restriction to a locality. In contrast therefore to the English Habitual Offender Act (1869) and the Prevention of Crime Act (1871) which focussed mainly on the ex- convict, these provisions created an immensely more flexible and wide-ranging field for police surveillance.
‘Habituality’ in crime became the subject of debate and discussion in India at the same time that the figure of the recidivist began to dominate anxieties about crime in Britain and and Europe. I have suggested that similarities and comparisons should be drawn, not by focusing on the Criminal Tribes Act alone, but by examining the construction of habituality in the general law as well and in the institutional context of the jail. Yet I conclude by suggesting that in the aftermath of World War one it was indeed the Criminal Tribes Settlement, which along with borstals for juveniles, allowed the colonial regime to claim a treatment- oriented dimension for its police and penal regime and to place itself in the current of international discussions about penal reform.
Pour tout renseignement : provost.fabien [at] gmail.com
« The Other Thought French-Indian Encounters on Creativity and Innovation »
presents the international workshop
Art and cinema industries in India : Norms, workers and territories
6th May, 2016
at the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art, Saket, New Delhi
The participation of cultural industries to sustainable development has been increasingly acknowledged in the past decades and the necessity to bring forward its potentials in India is urgent. The question of Indian cultural industries, policy and economy remains hardly addressed despite a contribution estimated to 30% of employment and 14% of the country GDP. The abysmal lack of official statistics on the cultural industries pointed out ten years ago by the Taskforce for Creative and Cultural Industry (2006) as not been filled. Workers and territories are emerging from behind veils of unrecognition while international laws are becoming more accurate. More broadly, there is a lack of understanding of the social, political and economic role that cultural industries can play in the development the country and in South Asia.
In the line of recent studies on norms and standardization process in cultural industries (Bouquillion et al. 2013), this workshop explores the articulation between norms and cultural industries in the Indian globalization context. The two sectors at the heart of the analysis will be cinema and visual arts. Among the issues that will be discussed: to what extent have these standards transformed the activities related to visual arts and cinema? Who are the actors producing these norms, working for their implementation or adaptation ? How to take into account the importance of informal system in the production and distribution of cultural goods? What are the conflicts and forms of resistance encountered with the local socio-economic realities? The aim of this workshop is to shed light on the evolution and impact of norms in cultural policies, on art workers and local territories, the integration the informal systems, and tensions with socio-economic realities.
This workshop will bring together specialists in policy making, economics, cultural industries, art market and professionals from the art and film industries. The objectives are to boost awareness, research and proactive policy development for cultural industries in India as encouraged in the Jodpur Initiatives. In a long term perspective, the intent is to strengthen Indo-French scientific cooperation on cultural industry research and enhance a transdisciplinary, international and interprofessionnal research group on cultural industries, policy and economy in India.
9.30 am – Registration & Tea
10 am – Inauguration of the workshop
Kiran Nadar, founder of the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art
Bertrand de Hartingh, director of the French Institute, New Delhi
Leila Choukroune, director of the Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities
10.15 am – Opening address Roobina Karode (Chief Curator of the Kiran Nadar Museum of Art)
10.20 am – Keynote address Philippe Bouquillion (Paris 13 / Labex ICCA / Co-director of OMIC)
10.30 am – SESSION 1. NORMS AND NORMALIZATION IN CULTURAL INDUSTRIES: THEORETICAL AND METHODOLOGICAL APPROACHES
Moe Chiba (UNESCO, Chief & Programme Specialist for Culture) – Culture for Development – Making Culture a new job sector
Vincent Bullich (Paris 13 / OMIC) – Over the top content distribution: new strategies, new production norms.
Kunzang N Tshering (Director BIMSTEC Cultural Cooperation, Dhaka) – BIMSTEC Cultural
Cooperation: Past, Present and Future – A Way Forward
Moderator: Christine Ithurbide (Centre for Social Sciences and Humanities)
11.45 am – Tea Break
12 am – SESSION 2. FRAMEWORK FOR ART AND CINEMA STATISTICS IN INDIA
Sanjoy Roy (FICCI Art and Culture Committee, and Managing Director, Teamwork Arts) – Arts and Industry Status report
Shailendra Sigdel (UNESCO Institute for Statistics) – title to be confirmed
Radhika Goel (KPMG Entertainement and Media) -Decoding the Indian Film Industry
Moderator: Shilpi Goswani (Alkazi Foundation for the Arts)
1.15 pm – Lunch Break
2.30 pm – SESSION 3. TOWARD NEW INDUSTRIAL DYNAMICS: EXPERIENCES AND CONTRIBUTIONS OF WORKERS AND ENTREPRENEURS
Lawrence Liang (Alternative Law Forum Bangalore) – Bright Lights and shadows: Histories and
Politics of labour in the Indian film Industry
Pooja Ramesh (Freelance Artistic Director) – Experiences as a freelancer in Bollywood Industry
Eve Lemesle (Director of What About Art? and Art Producer of the Dhaka Summit) – Rethinking art industry norms in South-Asian context
Moderator: Soraya Hamache (CEMMC, Bordeaux University)
3.45 am – Tea Break
4 pm – SESSION 4. ART AND CINEMA TERRITORIES IN RECOMPOSITION
Laxmikant Deshmukh (Former Managing Director of the Film City Mumbai, IAS) – title to be confirmed
François Daireaux (artist in residence) – Bhagwati, film in progress
Ravi Agarwal (artist and Director at Toxics Link) – title to be confirmed
Moderator: Shukla Sawant (School of Arts and Aesthetics, Jawaharlal Nehru University)
5.15 pm – Concluding remarks